In the sixth century an immigrating monk from India or Persia by the name of Bodhidharma introduced Mahayana-Buddhism to China. His doctrine was then fertilized with Chinese Taoism resulting in the Buddhist system of Ch’an. During the 12th century the teachings of Ch’an had reached Japan, whose followers then called it Zen.
Zen consists of intensive meditation training, finding one’s true nature leading to full awakening. In contrast to Tibetan Buddhism, with its many magical elements, this doctrine stresses the futility of religious ritual exercises. The Zen teachings focus merely on the experience of enlightenment, the awakening. Even the most extensive sacred literature of Buddhism is rejected in many Zen schools as it is considered a distraction.
The steep path that seeks the spontaneous insight strives after a sudden experience of the reality behind all phenomena. Even meditation and reflection can become a distraction from the essence of truth. The basic idea of Zen is the exemption from any attachment to the outer and inner reality, to find and experience the unit of being. The direct route is used primarily in the practice of sitting in quiet reflection, known as Zazen.
Zen is detached from all religious traditions, even those of Buddhism. It teaches the attainment of the primordial perfection of all beings. Since a conceptual thinking is caught up in dualism inhibiting the experience of primal perfection, the insights of Buddha in Zen are taught by direct interpretation of the human heart and spirit. Sticking to the actions of dualistic experiences of the world or the wording of sacred rules frustrates the apprehension of true reality. Sacred scriptures can be the finger that points to the moon, but never the moon itself.
The famous series of paintings of the ten oxen describe the process of spiritual maturation beyond thought and beyond the concepts presented. The ox is the symbol of one’s deep self, the true nature of man.
The search for the ox
The search for the self-being is the awakening onto the spiritual path, for the Zen student already the first obstacle. It seems as if the self-being is separated from a larger being, symbolized by the ox. Truth is that it was never cut off, never two beings; only by pure ignorance is it not present. At this level the spiritual-seeking individual encounters his first hurdle. He has the feeling to be awake, the urge to search for his true nature as if there was something else that would separate him.
The discovery of traces
Everywhere, in books, with masters and in the depth of his own soul, the Zen student searches for his true nature. Everywhere he finds himself in thousands of fragments, which he doesn’t know how to put together. The nose of the ox reaches to the sky, and there is no place where he could hide. The sel-beingf doesn’t hide itself; it is the student who has his eyes shut complaining that he can’t see anything.
The Perception of the Ox
The man finally caught the backside of the ox. It dawns on him that his little ego world and the all-embracing spirit don’t differ in the depth of their being. It is not something new that was found, but an ancient memory that returned.
The Capture of the Ox
The self-being must now exercise spiritual discipline or the ox will run away and mingle with the flock.
Taming the Ox
Finally, the self-being has found what it sought after. It remains a task though to stay off bad habits and to categorize everything into concepts. The maturation process at this stage is a battle until the new consciousness unites with the self-being. But even now the consciousness retains its distinctive awareness.
The return on the ox
Man believes to possess a greater spirit. As Zen-Buddhism teaches, the dualistic separation between the self-being and the all-embracing spirit is the root of all evil. As long as it exists, real awakening is not possible.
The ox disappears, the man is by himself
The first stage of that simple mind that Zen seeks is achieved. The distinction between ego and self is gone; there is only one primordial nature. Zen doesn’t end at this stage of development.
The Ox and the Man, both disappearing
An empty circle, a boundless circle, the absolute Nothingness is the foundation of all manifestations. Nothing is left except the Buddha nature of all being. Man forgets himself and becomes one with the truth. But before you can forget yourself you have to know yourself first. Unconsciousness cannot forget itself. Only when the individual being has been forgotten, it is able to develop the true nature in the world. The illusions, in which it had caught its senses and thoughts, disappear.
Return to the source
The Zen student and all things have become one. His consciousness includes and exceeds both the never-ending change and the emptiness. There is no difference between the inner and the outer self, between unborn spirit and the world of appearances. A state of complete naturalness, freedom of dualistic thinking is achieved. Zen calls this awareness Mushin. It can only be described as a consciousness that is no awareness, a consciousness that exists as a non-existing awareness, the remoteness of spirit.
Entering the city with bliss-giving hands
The door to his hut is closed, and not even the wisest men know him. His hut is not only locked but it is gone, and so is he. And yet, he is everywhere, on the market square, on the farms. He is seen with children, men, women, and animals. The enlightened exerting his effectiveness in the world has become very unimportant as a person himself. Yet, his unselfish actions that originate deep from within his one and only self are what count.