When Allah willed to close Revelation he made the last message as a comprehensive one. So rights in charia law (Islamic law) have wide meanings, as follows :
First of all rights: Allah’s rights :
Allah The Lord of the worlds, worthy of all praise, deserves to be honored and respected, because he is the creator of all creatures, the benefactor who has bestowed all blessings on them, he is the giver of life and of all senses, to enjoy it perfectly. So he has rights upon men, who should be beholden to recognise his boon for them. Accordingly Allah’s rights uopn men consist on three things:
To believe he exist and to trust in him, also to admit his oneness and that he’s the supreme being.
To worship no god but Him.
3- To Bow To His will:
Respond to his orders and avoiding his prohibitions.
These rights are the supreme ones, because they protect rights of the giver and the protector of all rights. In the other side they fulfill the goal of the creation or of the human existence, which is to worship the creator by following his manner and system.
Allah has said about this fact, what is meaning:
“I have only created jinns and men, that they may serve me.” Quran( 51/56)
Second: Rights of mankind :
This kind includes social, economic and politic rights, it consists on three essential parts:
a) Individual rights :
Called civil rights, example: right of life, education, …
But, in Islam man has also rights upon his own self, he is ordered to keep himself in safety from all things that hurt five things, Faith, Soul, Mind, Property and Dignity or Honor, for Islam aims at protecting these five things which are necessary for safe life, so it forbids everything that should hurt them.
Accordingly Islam imposed the following rules towards oneself:
– Securing oneself soul is obligatory, so killing, suicide or abortion are prohibited, and so intoxicants or every harming thing, like flesh of swine and dead animal as food, or even smoking.
– Property and honor are sacred, man is obliged to protect his property(money) from wastage and his honor from humiliation.
b) Rights of Kindred : Including parents, wife, children and close relatives:
Parents have rights on their sons and daughters, who should be kind of them, especially when they reach the old age. Similarly children also have rights on their parents.Both, wife and husband have mutual assistance towards each other.
c) Rights of weak and poor people: Orphans, needy and wayfarer:
Islam ordered absolutely to protect rights of these kinds of people and has legislated an obligatory charity on rich people wealth for their favour, and made this legislation as one pillar of Islam called zakat. It’s a messing right that no legislation has taken into consideration
d) Owners of rights :
Many rights enter in this context, like the followings:
– creditors of debts.
– neighbours: Kindness to neighbour is an obligatory right in Islam.
– All people, who have some right towards someone, whatever was the kind of right.
– Rights due to social interaction: Like right of the road, visit the sick person, following and participating at funeral procession, response to greeting with courtesy, and various other rights …
In short this kind of rights includes every moral and sensed right. So it involves good characters, like: trust on its wide meaning, secrets, honor, debts and compensation or Punishment due to felony, ..
The following Hadith (hadith is a saying of the prophet and his companions) abbreviates the concept of rights in Islam :
“Your Lord has a right on you, your soul has a right on you, and your family has a right on you; so you should give the rights of all those who has a right on you.”.
The Prophet (pbuh) approved this fact when he said after he heard this:
“Salman has spoken the truth.”. (Salman is he who advised his brother Abu Ad-Darda by these words).
This Hadith is collected by bukhari(volume 3, Book 31, Number 189)
In conclusion, we can observe the following:
* Rights in Islam are so wide than those who were proclaimed recently. * Generally in Islam rights comprehend rights of Allah and those of man! * Performance of Allah’s rights is the guarantor to protect all rights! * Every right is related to Allah’s rights, given that Allah is the source of rights and its protector. * Individual rights are only a bit of a mass of rights that should be protected! * Parents and relatives’ rights include alimony, care and benevolence.